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3Mdiet 3 ingestas diarias
6Mdiet 6 pequeñas ingestas
AACE/ACE American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists/American College of Endocrinology
AAS Ácido Acetil Salicílico
ACC American College of Cardiology 
ACCORD Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes Trial.  
ACCORD-BP Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes- Blood Pressure
ACCORD-ION Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes  Follow ON
ACE2 Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2  o enzima convertidora de la angiotensina 2 
ACG AutoControl de Glucemia
ACLS Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study 
ACOD AntiCoagulante Oral Directo
ACR Aptitud CardiorRespiratoria
ActRII receptor II de la activina tipo II 
ACV Accidente CerebroVascular 
ADA American Diabetes Association
ADAPTABLE Aspirin Dosing: A Patient-Centric Trial Assessing Benefits and Long-Term Effectiveness
ADDITION-Cambridge Anglo-Danish-Dutch Study of Intensive Treatment in People with Screen-Detected Diabetes in PrimaryCare 
ADF Alternate Day Fasting 
ADH Alcohol DesHidrogenasa 
ADI índice de deprivación de área (Area Deprivation Index)
ADNI AntiDiabéticos No Insulínicos 
ADOPT Diabetes Outcome Progression Trial
ADRR Average Daily Risk Range
ADVANCE Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease Study
ADVANCE-BP Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron Modified Release Controlled Evaluation  Blood Pressure 
ADVANCE-ON Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease Study-Observational Study 
ADVOR Acetazolamide in Decompensated heart failure with Volumen OveRload
AEI Amputaciones Extremidades Inferiores
AES American Epilepsy Society
AFFIRM-AHF Intravenous Ferric Carboxymaltose on Hospitalisations and Mortality in Iron Deficient Patients Admitted for Acute Heart Failure
AGREE II Appraisal of Guidelines Research and Evaluation (second version)
AHA American Heart Association
AHEAD Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD)
AHEI Alternate Healthy Eating Index 
AHRE episodio auricular de frecuencia alta 
AHRQ Agencia para la Investigación y Calidad de la Atención Médica 
AHS-2 Adventist Health Study-2 
AI Auricula Izquierda.
AID Automated insulin delivery  (sistemas automáticos de administración de insulina) 
aINS análogo de INSulina
AL Acidosis Láctica
ALA ácido alpha linoleico 
ALL-HEART ALLopurinol and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with ischaemic HEART disease
ALLHAT-LLT Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial 
AMPA Automedida domiciliaria de la Presión Arterial.  
AMPK Proteinquinasa
AMPLITUDE-O First Results of the Effect of Efpeglenatide on Cardiovascular Outcomes 
AMSTAR Appraisal of Guidelines Research and Evaluation II tool, A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews”
ANDIS All New Diabetics in Scania
ANEMC Antagonistas No-Esteroideo del receptor MineralCorticoide
ANGII Angiotensina II
ANGPTL8 ANGioPoyeTina-Like 8 
Anti GAD Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase antibodies
aOR adjusted Odds Ratio (razón de probabilidad ajustada)
AP        Atención Primaria
ApCV aptitud cardiovascular 
APEI Amputación Extremidad Inferior
APHOSDIAB Atención Primaria Hospitalización en pacientes con Diabetes
APP Arteriopatía Periferica
APPADL Ability to Perform Physical Activities of Daily Living Questionnaire (capacidad para realizar actividades físicas de la vida diaria) 
ARA2 Antagonistas de los Receptores de la Angiotensina 2
arGLP-1 Análogos del receptor del péptido-1 similar al glucagón
ARIC Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities 
ARM Antagonistas de los receptores Minerlcorticoide
ARNI inhibidores de la Neprilisina 
ARRIVE Aspirin to Reduce Risk of Initial Vascular Events
ARST Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonist Tolerability Study
ARST-DN Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonist Tolerability Study-Diabetic Nephropathy
ARST-HF Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonist Tolerability Study-Heart Failure 
ASCEND A Study of Cardiovascular Events in Diabetes
ASCOT-LLA Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial
ASCVD Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease
ASPREE Aspirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly 
ATC Antithrombotic Trialists’ Collaboration
ATP  Adenosine TriPhosphato
ATP III Adult Treatment Panel III
AU.S Aseguramiento Sanitario 
AUC Área bajo la Curva (Area Under the Curve)
AWARD 11 A Randomized, Double-Blind, Parallel Arm Study of the Efficacy and Safety of Investigational Dulaglutide Doses When Added to Metformin in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
B/F Bacteroidetes-to-Firmicutes ratio
BA Bebidas Azucaradas
BARI-2D Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes
BBs Betabloqueantes
BES Binge Eating Scale
BioLINCC Biologic Specimen and Data Repository Information Coordinating Center 
BPD Derivación BilioPancreática
BPLTTC Blood Pressure Lowering Treatment Trialists’ Collaboration 
BRACE CORONA Continuing Versus Suspending Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Angiotensin Receptor Blockers among patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection
BSRAA Bloqueo del Sistema Renina-Angiotensina-Aldosterona
C&G Cockroft-Gault 
CAC Cociente Albumina-Creatinina
CaCo Cancer de Colon
CAD Cetoacidosis diabética
CALIBER Cardiovascular disease research using Linked Bespoke studies and Electronic health Records 
CANTAYA-SU Canagliflozin _treatment and Trial Analysis-Sulfonylurea
CANVAS Canagliflozin Cardiovascular Assessment Study
CARDIA Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults
CARE Consultation And Relational Empathy
CaReMe CArdioRenal and Metabolic
CARMELINA Cardiovascular and Renal Microvascular Outcome Study With Linagliptin in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus 
CAROLINA CARdiovascular Outcomestudy of LINAgliptin versus glimepiride in patientswithtype 2 diabetes
CASCADE CArdiovaSCulAr Diabetes & Ethanol
CB Cirugía Bariátrica
CC Circunferencia de Cintura
CCAA Comunidades Autonomas
CCL Contaje Células Leucocitarias
CCS Canadian Cardiovascular Society
CCS/CHFS Canadian Cardiovascular Society Guideline for Use of GLP-1 Receptor Agonists and SGLT2 Inhibitors for Cardiorenal Risk Reduction in Adults” 
CCTG Canadian Cancer Trials Group (CCTG
CDA Canadian Diabetes Association.
CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
CDM Core Diabetes Model
CGM Continuous Glucose Monitoring
CHANCES Consortium on Healthand Ageing Network of Cohorts in Europe and the United State 
CHARM Candesartan in Heart failure Assessment of Reduction in Mortality and morbidity
CHARM-ALTERNATIVE Candesartan in Heart Failure. Assess of Reduction in Mortality & Morbidity. 
CHARM-PRESERVED Candesartan Cilexetil in Heart Failure Assessment of Reduction in Mortality and Morbidity
CHESS COVID-19 Hospitalisation in England Surveillance System
CHIEF-HF Canagliflozin on Health status qualIty of lifE and Functional status in Heart Failure
CHS Cardiovascular Health Study
CI Cardiopatia Isquémica
CINAHL Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature
CK-MB Creatinina Kinasa, isoenzima específica del miocardio.
CKD-EPI Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology 
CKD273 Chronic kidney disease 273
CM Cirugía Metabólica
CMD CardioMiopatía Diabética 
CMDB Conjunto Mínimo de Datos Básicos
CMS Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services
CMUH China Medical University Hospital
CoefV Coeficiente de Variación 
CONGA Continuous Overlapping Net Glycemic Action
CONQUER Effects of low-dose, controlled-release, phentermine plus topiramate combination on weight and associated comorbidities in overweight and obese adults 
CONSORT Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials 
Cor-SARS-2 Coronavirus–Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 and Diabetes Outcomes
CORONADO Coronavirus Disease and Diabetes Outcome 
CoV Coronavirus   
COVID19 Coronavirus Disease 2019
CPRD Clinical Practice Research Database 
CREDENCE Canagliflozin and Renal Events in Diabetes with Established Nephropathy Clinical Evaluation
CRESCENDO Comprehensive Rimonabant Evaluation Study of Cardiovascular Endpoints and Outcomes
CTT Cholesterol Treatment Trialists
CUIMC/NYP Columbia University Irving Medical Center/New York Presbyterian Hospital
CV CardioVascular
CVD-REAL Comparative  Effectiveness of Cardiovascular Outcomes in New Users of SGLT-2 Inhibitors
CVOT CardioVascular  Outcome Trials (ensayos clínicos de seguridad cardiovascular)
D2d Vitamin D and Type 2 Diabetes
DAFNE Dose Adjustment For Normal Eating 
DAPA-CKD Dapagliflozin on Renal Outcomes and Cardiovascular Mortality in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease
DAPA-HF Dapagliflozin and Prevention of Adverse Outcomes in Heart Failure
DARE-19 Dapagliflozin in Respiratory Failure in Patients With COVID-19
DARWIN-T2D DAta for Real World evIdeNce in Type 2 Diabetes
DASH Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension 
DAWN Diabetes Attitudes, Wishes and Needs 
DAWN2 Diabetes Attitudes, Wishes and Needs 2 (segunda edición)
DBHC Dieta Baja en Hidratos de Carbono
DCCT Diabetes Control and Complications Trial.  
DCMP Diabetes Care Management Program 
DE Desviación Estandar
DECLARE  Dapagliflozin Effect on Cardiovascular Events
DECLARE-TIMI 58 Dapagliflozin Effect on Cardiovascular Events-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 58
DEFINE-HF Dapagliflozin Effects on Biomarkers, Symptoms and Functional Status in Patients with HF with Reduced Ejection Fraction
DEG-100 Degludec 100 UI
DELIVER Dapagliflozin Evaluation to Improve the LIVEs of Patients With PReserved Ejection Fraction Heart Failure 
DESIR Epidemiological Study on the Insulin Resistance  Syndrome
DET Diferencia Estimada del Tratamiento 
DEXA Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry
DFF Dosis Fija de Farmacos
DG Diabetes Gestacional
DHC Dieta HipoCalórica
DiRECT Diabetes Remission Clinical Trial 
DISCOVER DISCOVERing Treatment Reality of Type 2 Diabetes in Real World Settings
DM Diabetes Mellitus.  
DM1 Diabetes Mellitus tipo 1
DM2 Diabetes Mellitus tipo 2
DM3 Diabetes Mellitus tipo 3
DMBHC Dieta Muy Baja en Hidratos de Carbono
DME Diferencia Media Estandarizada
DMP Diferencia Media Monderada 
DMR Dispositivo de Monitorización Remota
DPAIB Diferencias en la PA entre los brazos 
DPP Diabetes Prevention Program 
DPPOS Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study 
DREAM Diabetes Reduction Assessment with ramipril and rosiglitazone Medication
DS Desviación Estandar
DSM-5 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5
DSMES Educación y el Apoyo para el Autocontrol de la Diabetes
DT Diferencias de Tasas
DTSQ Satisfacción con el Tratamiento de la Diabetes
DTSQc Satisfacción con el Tratamiento de la Diabetes  y cambio
DULA Dulaglutida
Δ9-THC Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol 
e-BRAVE AF smartphone Based scReEning for Atrial Fibrillation
EA Efecto Adverso 
EAG Efecto Adverso Grave
EAS European Atherosclerosis Society
EASD European Association for the Study of Diabetes
EASEL Evidence for Cardiovascular Outcomes With Sodium Glucose Cotrnasporter 2 Inhibitors in the Real Word 
ECA Ensayo Clinico Aleatorizado
ECANICV Ensayos Clínicos Aleatorizados de No Inferioridad CardioVascular 
ECC Evento Coronario
ECG Electrocardiograma.
ECM Enfermedad CardioMetabólica
ECV Enfermedad CardioVascular
ECVa Enfermedad Cardiovascular Arteriosclerótica
EDIC Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications 
EDRFA Encuestas Dietéticas Retrospectivas de Frecuencia Alimentaria
EDWPOP European Diabetes Working Party for Older People 
EFA Entrenamiento Físico Aeróbico
eFI Frailty Index
EGIR European Group for the study of Insulin Resistence  
EH Estancia Hospitalaria
ELIXA Evaluation of  LIXisenatide in Acute Coronary Syndrome 
EMA Agencia Europea de Medicamentos
EMD Edema Macular Diabético
EMDAC Endocrinologic and Metabolic Drugs Advisory Committee (EMDAC) 
EMMY Empagliflozin in acute Myocardial Infarction trial
EMPA-HEART CardioLink-6 Effects of Empagliflozin on Cardiac Structure in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes  Cardiolink-6
EMPA-KIDNEY The Study of Heart and Kidney Protection With Empagliflozin
EMPA-REG OUTCOME Empagliflozin Cardiovascular Outcome Event Trial in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients–Removing Excess Glucose 
EMPA-RESPONSE-AHF Empaglifozin on clinical outcomes in patients with acute decompensated heart failure
EMPA-TROPISM Safety and Efficacy of Empagliflozin versus Placebo on Top of Guideline-directed Medical Therapy in Heart Failure Patients with Reduced Ejection Fraction without Diabetes
EMPEROR Pooled EMPagliflozin outcomE tRial in Patients With chrOnic heaRt Failure pooled
EMPEROR-Preserved EMPagliflozin outcomE tRial in Patients With chrOnic heaRt Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction  
EMPEROR-Reduced EMPagliflozin outcomE tRial in Patients With chrOnic heaRt Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction 
EMPRISE EMPagliflozin compaRative effectIveness  and SafEty
EMPULSE EMPagliflozin initiated in patients hospitalized for acUte heart faiLurewho have been StabilisEd
EN Emociones Negativas
END Enfermedades NeuroDegenerativas
EPA ácido eicosapentaenoico 
EPIA Exceso de Peso Inducido por los Antipsicóticos
EPIC European Prospective Investigation of Cancer
EPIDIAR Epidemiología de la DIABETES y el Ramadán 
EPO Eritropoyetina
EQ-5D-3L European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions -3Life
EQA Estandar de Calidad Asistencial
ER Ejercicio de Resistencia
ER/PgR receptor hormonal estrogénico y/o progesteronico
ERA Enfermedad Renal Aguda
ERBB2 receptor 2  del factor de crecimiento epidérmico humano 2
ERC Enfermedad Renal Crónica
ERD Enfermedad Renal Diabética
ERFC Emerging Risk Factor Collaboration 
erMedDiet Dieta Mediterranea energéticamente restrictiva
ERT Enfermedad Renal Terminal
ES Endocrine Society
ESC European Society of Cardiology
ESCADIANE Estudio sobre las características de los pacientes ancianos con diabetes en España
ESD Efectos Secundarios aDversos
ETDRS Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study 
ETIFIC Ensayo de la titulación de enfermera de insuficiencia cardiaca en comparación con la de cardiólogo
EV Estilos de Vida
EvCV Evento CardioVascular
EXAMINE Examination of Cardiovascular Outcomes with Alogliptin versus Standard of Care 
EXSCEL Exenatide Study of Cardiovascular Event Lowering 
FAERS FDA’s Adverse Event Reporting System 
FAH Falta de AdHerencia
FANV Fibrilación Auricular No Valvular
FDA Food Drug Administration
FDC Fixed-dose combination
FDPS Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study 
FE Fracción de Eyección  
FEVI Fracción de Eyección del Ventrículo Izquierdo
FFQ Food Frequency Questionnaire
FGe Filtrado Glomerular estimado
FGm FGe media
FHS Framingham Heart Study
FIDELIO-DKD Efficacy and Safety of Finerenone in Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Diabetic Kidney Disease
FIDELITY Finerenone Cuts CV Risk in T2D Across CKD Spectrum
FIGARO-DKD Efficacy and Safety of Finerenone in Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and the Clinical Diagnosis of Diabetic Kidney Disease
FIGHT Functional Impact of GLP-1 for Heart Failure Treatment 
FO Fondo de Ojo
FORCE Fatty Acids and Outcomes Research Consortium 
FOURIER Further Cardiovascular Outcomes Research With PCSK9 Inhibition in Subjects With Elevated Risk
FRCM Factor de Riesgo CardioMetabólico
FRCV Factor de Riesgo Cardiovascular
FSH Hormona Estimulante del Folículo
GAD65 Ácido Glutámico Decarboxilasa 65 (Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase)
GALACTIC-HF Global Approach to Lowering Adverse Cardiac outcomes Through Improving Contractility in Heart Failure
GB Glucosa Basal 
GBA Glucosa Basal Alterada.
GDS German Diabetes Study 
GEDAPS Grupo de Estudio para la Diabetes en Atención Primaria de Salud.
GIN Guidelines International Network 
GIP Glucose-dependent Insulinotropic Peptide (péptido inotrópico glucosa-dependiente)
GLA-300 Glargina 300 UI
GLI Glinidas
GLY Gliburide
GoDARTS Observacional Genetics of Diabetes Audit and Research in Tayside Scotland
GPC Guía de Práctica Clínica
GPRD General Practice Research Database  
GRADE Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation
GRADE study Glycemia Reduction Approaches in Diabetes: A Comparative Effectiveness Study
GTHS Globulina Transportadora de las Hormonas Sexuales
GTZ Glitazonas (Tiazolidinedionas)
HARMONY Albiglutide and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease
HARPdoc Hypoglycaemia Awareness Restoration Programme
HbA1c Hemoglobina glicada, glucada o Glucohemoglobina.
HBPM Heparinas de Bajo Peso Molecular
HC Hidratos de Carbono
HCL Hybridclosed-loop (sistema hibrido cerrado)
HCQ HidroxiCloroQuina
HDL-c lipoproteínas de alta densidad-colesterol (High Density Lipoptotein)
hdPS high-dimensional propensity score
HER2 O HER2/NEU factor de crecimiento epidérmico humano 2
HES Hospital Episodes Statistics
HF-ACTION Heart Failure: A Controlled Trial Investigating Outcomes of Exercise Training
HFSA Heart Failure Society of American 
HGI Hemorragia GastroIntestinal
HH Hiperglucemia Hiperosmolar
HI Hiperinsulinemia.
HIC Hospitalización por Insuficiencia Cardiaca
HLA Human Leukocyte Antigens (Antigeno leucocitario humano)
HOMA2 B Homeostasis de la célula B pancreática
HOMA2 IR Homeostasis insulinorresistencia 
HOPE Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation 
HOT Hypertension Optimal Treatment  
HPFS Health Professionals Follow-up Study
HR Hazard Ratio
HRS Health and Retirement Study 
hscTnT Troponina T cardiaca ultrasensible o de alta sensibilidad
HYGIA HYpertension Group cronotherapy trIAl
I/E criterios de Inclusión/Exclusión
I-PRESERVED Irbesartan in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction Study
I2 Heterogenicidad sustancial
IA Inteligencia Artificial
IA2 antígeno de los islotes 2 
IADPSG International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups 
IAGG International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics 
IAM Infarto Agudo de Miocardio 
IBP Inhibidor de la Bomba de Protones
IC Insuficiencia Cardiaca
IC 95% Intervalo de Confianza del 95%
ICA512 autoantígeno de células de los islotes 512 
ICC Insuficiencia Cardíaca Congestiva
ICCa Indice cintura/cadera
ICE Indice cintura/estatura
ICES Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences
ICFEmr Insuficiencia cardiaca con fracción de eyección levemente reducida
ICFEP Insuficiencia Cardiaca con Fracción de Eyección Preservada
ICFEp IC con FE persistente
ICFER Insuficiencia Cardiaca con Fracción de Eyección Reducida
ICFErec Insuficiencia Cardiaca con Fracción de Eyección del Ventriculo Izquierdo recuperada 
ICi Intervalo de Confianza incierto
ICL Inercia CLínica
ICS Instituto Catalá de la Salud
ICSI Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement
ICT Indice CardioTorácico.
IDF International Diabetes Federation.  
iDPP4 Inhibidores de la dipeptidilpeptidasa 4  
IECA Inhibidores de la Enzima Conversora de la Angiotensina
IEV Intervencion en Estilos de Vida
IG Índice Glucémico
IGF Factores de crecimiento
IGG Indicador de gestion de la glucemia
IGLA Insulina glargina
IL Interleucina o InterleuKina
IMC Indice de masa corporal.  
IMCMD IMC mayor antes del debut de la DM2 
IMPROVE-IT Improved Reduction of Outcomes: Vytorin Efficacy International Trial
IMVI índice de masa del VI 
IN CONTROL Continuous glucose monitoring for patients with type 1 diabetes and impaired awareness of hypoglycaemia
InCC índice de depósito Cálcico Coronario
INRA Inhibidores de la Neprilisina y de los Receptores de Angiotensina 2 
INS Insulina
INS DEGL Insulina Degludec
INS Ico Insulina Icodec
INS NPH Insulina Neutra Protamina de Hagedorn
INSAL Análogos de insulina prolongada
INSB Insulina Basal
INSB Fc Insulina basal Fc (BIF LY3209590)
INSG Insulina Glargina
INSH Insulina Humana
INSIGHT Intervention as a Goal in Hypertension Treatment 
INSR Insulina Regular
INVICTUS rIvaroxaban iN rheumatIC hearT disease-aSsociated atrial fibrillation
IPAQ-SF Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Form 
IPC índice de peptido C
IPE etil icosapenteno 
IPTW sistema de ponderamiento de la posibilidad tratamiento inverso 
IQR Rango Interquartil
IRC Insuficiencia Renal Crónica
IRD Diabetes relacionada con la herencia
IRIS Insulin Resistance Intervention after Stroke
IRR incidence rate ratio 
iSGLT2 Inhibidores del cotransportador de sodio-glucosa 2 
ISO Organización Internacional de Normalización
iSRRA inhibidores del Sistema Renina-Angiotensina-Aldosterona 
IT Inercia Terapéutica
ITG Intolerancia a la glucosa
IV IntraVenosa
IW-SP Impact of Weight on Self-Perceptions (Impacto del peso sobre la autopercepción)
IWGDF International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot 
JADE Joint Asia Diabetes Evaluation 
JHU Johns Hopkins University
JUPITER Justification for the Use of statins in Prevention: an Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin
K+ Potasio
KCCQ Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire
KCCQ-CS Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire Clinical summary Score 
KDIGO Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes 
KPNC Kaiser Permanente Northern California 
LAGB técnica de una banda gástrica laparoscópica
LDL-col Lipoproteina de baja densidad-colesterol (Low-Density Lipoprotein)
LEADER Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes: Evaluation of  cardiovascular Outcome Results 
LEAN Liraglutide Safety and Efficacy in Patients with NASH
LFC Liver Fat Content 
LH Hormona Luteinizante
LIBERATES Improving Glucose Control in Patients With Diabetes Following Myocardial Infarction: The Role of a Novel Glycaemic Monitoring
LINA Linagliptina
LPIR resistencia lipoprotéica a la insulina
LST Life`s Simple 7
LTC Centros de Atención a largo plazo 
MACE Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events (eventos adversos cardiovasculares mayores)
MADF Modified Alternate-Day Fasting
MAGE amplitud media de las excursiones glucémicas 
MALE Major Adverse Limb Events (Efectos adversos mayores en las extremidades)
MAPA Monitorización Ambulatoria de la Presión Arterial.
MARD Diabetes leve relacionada con la edad
MBE Metodología Basada en la Evidencia  o Medicina Basada en la Evidencia
MCC Muerte por Cualquier Causa
MCG Monitorización Continua de Glucosa
MCG-int MCG  de escaneo intermitente
MCG-tr MCG en tiempo real
MCP-1 proteína quimiotáctica de monocitos tipo 1
MCV Muerte de causa CardioVascular
MD Mediana de Diferencia de medias
MDRD Modification of Diet in Renal Disease
MEASURE-HF Mechanistic Evaluation of Glucose-lowering Strategies in Patients With Heart Failure
MedDiet Dieta Mediterránea
MERS Síndrome Respiratorio de Medio Oriente 
MERS-CoV Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-related CoronaVirus
MesH Medical Subject Headings
MET Metformina
MEV Modificación de Estilos de Vida
MFR Multiples Factores de Riesgo
MGC Masa grasa Corporal
MGH Massachusetts Hospital General  
MM Masa Magra
MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination
MNA Mini Nutritional Assessment
MOBA Norwegian Mother, Father and Child Cohort Study 
MOD Diabetes relacionada con la obesidad
MODY Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young 
MOOSE Meta-analysis Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology
MRAS antagonistas de los receptores mineralocorticoides 
MSC Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo
MTP Medicamento Tradicional a base de Plantas
MUFA Mono- Unsaturated Fatty Acids
MUST Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool
n número  
N Engl J Me New England Journal of Medicine
Na Sodio
NA Neuropatía Autonómica
NAC Neuropatia Autonómica Cardíaca
NAFLD Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (esteatosis hepática no alcohólica)
NASH Non-Alcoholic SteatoHepatitis (esteatohepatitis no alcohólica) 
NCCMERP National Coordinating Council for Medication Error Reporting and Prevention.
NCD RisC NCD Risk Factor Collaboration
NCEP US National Cholesterol Education Programme.  
NCI National Cancer Institute
NDA National Diabetes Audit 
NDDG National Diabetes Data Group
NDEP National Diabetes Education Program 
NDIT Neuropatia Diabética Inducida por el Tratamiento
NDM Nefropatia Diabética
NDMA N_Nitrosodimetilamina
NDTI National Disease and Therapeutic Index 
NESDA Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety 
NGC National Guidelines Clearinghouse 
NGSP National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program.  
NHANES National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 
NHIA National Health Insurance Administration
NHIRD National Health Insurance Research Database 
NHLBI National Heart Lung and Blood Institute 
NHMRC Australian Government National Health and Medical Research Council
NHS National Health Scottish 
NICE National Institute for Clinical Excellence.  
NIDDK National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
NIH National Institutes of Health
NIS Nationwide Inpatient Sample 
NMA Network-Meta Analysis 
NNH Número necesario a tratar para producir un evento adverso
NNT Número Necesario a Tratar
NNT10 NNT en 10 años
NNTT Nuevas Tecnologias
NPD Neuropatía diabética
NPDP Neuropatía diabética Periférica
NT-proBNP fracción N terminal de la prohormona del peptido natriurético cerebral 
NU-AGE New dietary strategies addressing the specific needs of elderly population for an healthy ageing in Europe 
NYHA New York Heart Association
OBSERVE-4D A real-world meta-analysis of 4 observational databases
ODYSSEY OUTCOMES Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes After an Acute Coronary Syndrome During Treatment With Alirocumab
OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 
OMD Osteomielitis
OMS Organización Mundial de la Salud
ON Óxido Nítrico
ONCE Organización Nacional de Ciegos de España
ONS Office for National Statistics
OPG OsteoProteGerina 
OPN OsteoPoNtina
OR odds ratio 
ORMD-801 Insulina oral Oramed
OVR Oclusion de la Vena Retiniana
PA Presión Arterial
PAD Presión Arterial Diastólica
PANTHER P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy in patients versus Aspirin in patieNTs witH coronary artERy disease
PARADIGM-HF Efficacy and Safety of LCZ696 Compared to Enalapril on Morbidity and Mortality in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction
PARADISE´MI Prospective ARNI vs. ACE inhibitor trial to DetermIne Superiority in reducing heart failure Events after Myocardial Infarction
PARAGON Efficacy and Safety of LCZ696 Compared to Valsartan, on Morbidity and Mortality in Heart Failure Patients (NYHA Class II-IV) With Preserved Ejection Fraction
PARALLAX A Randomized, Double-blind Controlled Study Comparing LCZ696 to Medical Therapy for Comorbidities in HFpEF Patients
PAS Presión Arterial Sistólica
PC Perímetro de Cintura
PCDE Primary Care Diabetes Eurrope
PCDS Primary Care Diabetes Society 
PCI Práctica Colaborativa Interprofesional
PCORnet National Patient-Centered Clinical Research Network
PCR prueba de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa
PCS ProCalcitonina Sérica
PCSK9 Proprotein Convertasa Subtilisin Kexin 9
PCV13 Polisacaridos conjugada  valente 13
PDA Polish Diabetes Association
PDC Proporción de Días Cubiertos
PDM Pie Diabético
PEP-CHF Perindopril in Elderly People with Chronic Heart Failure 
PERCEDIME Prevalencia de la Enfermedad Renal  Crónica En pacientes con DIabetes MEllitus  tipo 2 en las consultas de atención primaria
PGA Perfil Glucémico Ambulatorio 
PHQ-9 Patient Health Questionnaire-9 
PICO Population, Intervention, Control, and Outcomes”
PIO Pioglitazona
PIONEER Peptide InnOvatioN for Early DiabEtes TReatment 
PmedDiet Pesco-Mediterranean diet -PmedDiet
PNA PoliNeuropatía Autonomica
PP Prevencion Primaria
PPRAα Peroxisoma Proliferador-Activador del Receptor alfa
PPROMs Patient reported outcome measures 
PPSDiab post gestational diabetes study
PPSV23 Vacuna Neumocócica de polisacáridos 23 valente
PRED PREDiabetes  
PREDAPS PREDiabetes en Atención Primaria de Salud (Primary Health Care on the Evolution of Patients with Prediabetes )
PREDIM índice de evaluación de la homeostasis y la sensibilidad a la INS
PREDIMED PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea
PREDIMED-PLUS PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea-Plus
PRESERVED-HF Dapagliflozin in PRESERVED Ejection Fraction Heart Failure 
PRIORITY Proteomic prediction and Renin angiotensin aldosterone system Inhibition prevention Of early diabetic nephRopathy in TYpe 2 diabetic patients with normoalbuminuria
PRISMA Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses
PROactive PROspective pioglitAzone Clinical Trial In macroVascular Events  
PROMINENT Pemafibrate to Reduce Cardiovascular Outcomes by Reducing Triglycerides in Patients with Diabetes 
PROSPER Pravastatin in elderly individuals at risk of vascular disease 
PROSPERO International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews 
PRR tasa proporcionales por año
PS Propensity scores (puntaje por propensión)
PTH Paratohormona
PUFA Poly- Unsaturated Fatty Acids
PY persona/año (PY)
PYY Péptido YY
QALYs Quality Adjusted Life Year (años de vida ajustados por calidad neta) 
QRISK2 QRISK cardiovascular disease risk algorithm 
RAMQ Régie de l’assurance maladie du Québec 
RAP Riesgo Atribuible Poblacional
RCV Riesgo CardioVascular
RD reducción de riesgo 
RDM Retinopatia Diabética
RDML Retinopatia Diabética Leve
RDMNP Retinopatia Diabética No Proliferativa
RDMP Retinopatia Diabética Proliferativa
RECORD Rosiglitazone evaluated for cardiovascular outcomes in oral agent combination therapy for type 2 diabetes
RECORD-PE The reporting of studies conducted using observational routinely collected health data statement for pharmacoepidemiology
RedGDPS Red de Estudios de la Diabetes en Atención Primaria de la Salud
REDUCE-IT Reduction of Cardiovascular Events with EPA-Intervention Trial
ReFLeCT Results From Real-World Clinical Treatment With Tresiba® 
REGARDS Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke 
REGICOR Registre Gironí del Cor
REHAB-HF REhabilitation Therapy in Older Acute Heart Failure Patients 
RESPECT-EPA Randomized trial for Evaluation in Secondary Prevention Efficacy of Combination Therapy – Statin and Eicosapentaenoic Acid)
REWIND Researching cardiovascular Events with a Weekly INcretin in Diabetes
RI Resistencia a la insulina (Insulinorresistencia)
RIC Rango InterCuartil
RIGHT Reporting Items for Practice Guidelines in Healthcare
RISE Restoring Insulin Secretion
RMNC Resonancia Magnética Nuclear Cardíaca 
RNAO Registered Nurses' Association of Ontario
RNM Resonancia Nuclear Magnética
RNM-PDFF Resonancia  Nuclear Magnética  – Proton Density Fat Fraction
ROCKET AF Rivaroxaban versus Warfarin in Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation 
ROSE The Retrospective Study of Cardiovascular Events Related to the Use of Glucose-Lowering Drug Treatment in Primary Care 
ROSG Rosiglitazona 
RPM Ratio de posesión de medicamentos
RRI Respuesta rápida de la Insulina
RRR Reducción del Riesgo Relativo
RT-PCR Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (reacción en cadena de la polimerasa con transcripción inversa)
rtCGM real-time continuous glucose monitoring (monitorización continua de glucosa en tiempo real)
RWD Real World Evidence (datos de la vida real)
RYGB técnica de bypas en Y de Roux
S/V Sacabutril/Valsartan
SAHOS Síndrome de Apnea hipopnea Obstructiva del Suaño
SAID Diabetes Autoinmunidad Severa
SAVOR-TIMI Saxagliptin Assessment of Vascular Outcomes Recorded in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus–Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 
SCI-Diabetes Scottish Care Information-Diabetes 
SCORE Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation 
SCORED Effect of Sotagliflozin on Cardiovascular and Renal Events in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes and Moderate Renal Impairment Who Are at Cardiovascular Risk 
SEARCH SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth 
SECURE SEcondary prevention of Cardiovasc UlaR disease in the Elderl
SEMA Semaglutide
SF-36 Short Form 36 
SIDD Diabetes con deficiencia severa de insulina 
SIDIACO-RETRO Sitagliptin Treatment in Diabetic COVID-19 Positive Patients
SIDIAP Spanish Information System for the Development of Research in Primary Care 
SIGN Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network 
SIRD Diabetes con resistencia grave a la Insulina 
SMBG Sistema de Monitorización de Glucosa Basal
SMC Standars of Medical Care
SMCG Sistema de Monitorización Continua de Glucosa
SMCG-int SMCG de escaneo intermitente
SMCG-tr SMCG en tiempo real
SMS Servicio de Mensajes Simples 
SNP nucleótidos de un solo polimorfismo 
SNS Sistema Nacional de Salud
SOG Prueba de Sobrecarga o tolerancia oral a la glucosa.  
SOLOIST-WHF Sotagliflozin on Cardiovascular Events in Patients With Diabetes and recient Heart Failure
SOPQ Síndrome de Ovario Poliquistico
SOS Swedish Obese Subjects  (Sujetos Obesos Suecos)
SOSR Scandinavian Obesity Surgery Registry
SOTA Sotagliflocina
SOUL A Heart Disease Study of Semaglutide in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes
SOURMOUNT Study of Tirzepatide in Participants With Obesity or Overweight
SPD Sistema Personalizado de Dosificación
SPLENDOR Surgical Procedures and Long-term Effectiveness in NASH Disease and Obesity Risk 
SPPB Short Physical Performance Battery (Bateria de rendimiento físico corto)
SPRINT Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial
SRAS  Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Severo 
SRAS-CoV-2 Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Severo por CoronaVirus 2  
SRDA Sindrome de Distres Respiratorio Agudo
SSE Situación SocioEconómica
sST2 péptido factor de tumorogenicidad soluble de tipo 2 
STAMPEDE Surgical Therapy and Medications Potentially Eradicate Diabetes Efficiently
STAREE Statins for Reducing Events in the Elderly 
STENO 2 Multifactorial intervention and cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes.  
STEP 1 Semaglutide Treatment Effect in People with obesity
STITCH Simplified Treatment Intervention to Control Hypertension
STRENGTH Long-Term Outcomes Study to Assess Statin Residual Risk with Epanova in High Cardiovascular Risk Patients with Hypertriglyceridemia 
STROBE Strengthening of Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology
SUGAR-DM-HF StUdies of empaGliflozin and its cArdiovascular, Renal and metabolic effects in patients with Diabetes Mellitus and Heart Failure
SUH Servicio de Urgencias Hospitalario
SURDIAGENE Suivi Rénal, DIAbète de type 2 et GENEtique
SURMOUNT Study of Tirzepatide in participants with obesity or Overweigth
SURPASS Study of Tirzepatide Versus Semaglutide Once Weekly as Add-on Therapy to Metformin in Participants With Type 2 Diabetes
SURPASS COVT Study of Tirzepatide Compared With Dulaglutide on Major Cardiovascular Events in Participants With Type 2 Diabetes
SURPASS MRI SURPASS Magnetic Resonance Imaging
SURPASS-3 CGM SURPASS-3 Continuous Glucose Monitoring
SUSTAIN Semaglutide in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes 
T1D-GRS puntaje de riesgo genómico de la DM1
TCH Texas Children’s Hospital 
TDO Terapia Directamente Observada
TECOS Trial Evaluating Cardiovascular Outcomes with Sitagliptin 
TEP Tromboembolismo Pulmonar
TER Tiempo en Rango 
TEV Tromboembolismo Venoso
THEMIS Effect of Ticagrelor on Health Outcomes in Diabetes Mellitus Patients Intervention Study
THIN The Health Improvement Network 
TIME Treatment In Morning versus Evening
TIPS-3 The International Polycap Study 3
TIRZE Tirzepatida
TMPRRSS2 Transmembrane Serine Protease 2 o Proteasa Transmembrana Serina 2
TNHI Taiwan’s National Health Insurance 
TODAY Treatment Options for type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth
TOHB Terapia con Oxígeno HiperBárico 
TOPCAT Treatment of Preserved Cardiac Function Heart Failure With an Aldosterone Antagonist 
TOSCA IT Thiazolidinediones Or Sulfonylureas Cardiovascular Accidents Intervention Trial 
TPP Tasa de Participación en la Prevalencia
TRE Time-Restricted Eating
TRIG Triglicéridos
TriMASTER 3-way cross-over trial of precision medicine strategy of 2nd/3rd line therapy in type 2 diabetes
TRIUMPH Triple Pill vs Usual Care Management for Patients With Mild-to-Moderate Hypertension
TRP Tabla de Riesgo Poligénico 
TRS Terapia Renal Sustitutiva
TSE Tasa de Sedimentación Eritrocitaria
TSMR Tiempo de supervivencia media restringida
TVP Trombosis Venosa Profunda
TZP Tirzepatida
UAB University of Alabama at Birmingham 
UARD Diabetes relacionado con ácido úrico 
UCI Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos.
UD Úlcera diabética
UDP Úlcera diabética en el pie
UHPLC-MS/MS Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-tandem Mass Spectrometry 
UKB UK Biobank
UKPDS United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study Group.
USPSTF US Preventive Services Task Force 
VA Veterans Affairs
VADT Veterans Affairs Diabetes Trial
VD Ventrículo derecho.
VEGF Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor  o factores de inhibición del crecimiento vasculo-endotelial 
VERIFY Vildagliptin Efficacy in combination with metfoRmIn For earlY treatment of type 2 diabetes
VERTIS CV eValuation of ERTugliflozin effIcacy and Safety CardioVascular 
VFC Variabilidad de la Frecuencia Cardiaca
VHA Veterans Health Administration 
VI Ventrículo izquierdo.
VICTORIA VerICiguaT GlObal Study in Subjects With Heart Failure With Reduced EjectIon FrAction
VITAL VITamin D and OmegA-3 Trial
VIVIDD Vildagliptin in Ventricular Dysfunction Diabetes
VLDL-col Lipoproteina de muy baja densidad-colesterol
VMI Ventilación Mecánica Invasiva
VMR Variabilidad Media Real 
VN Vacuna antiNeumocócica 
VNDS Verona Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Study 
WESDR Wisconsin Epidemiologic Study of Diabetic Retinopathy 
WHI Women’s Health Initiative
WHO World Health Organization
WHS Wound Healing Society
WHS Women´s Health Study
ZnT8 antigeno del trasportador de Zinc 8 
Recursos en internet
Diccionario de Siglas Médicas

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